Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Oil & Gas Applications

Beyond traditional oil and gas extraction techniques, the Oil & Gas Industry has been booming in the United States and around the world since the demand for shale oil has led to horizontal fraction drilling all over the world and even in several regions of the U.S. This drilling is happening both on and offshore to tap into vast quantities of resources trapped in the porous shale deposits deep underground and under the seabed. The flowback from shale oil plays has manydifferent components that must undergo a process of separation in order to isolate the resources for use. Once separated, the byproducts are often stored in tanks before being transported for distribution and sale.

Thermal mass flow meters from Fox Thermal have been used to measure tank vent and flash gas during storage. VOC emissions from these tank batteries are required to be
reported for regulatory purposes. The accurate monitoring of leaks from these tanks is another common use of thermal mass flow meters.

The flowback from fracking well heads must go through separators in order to separate the water/chemical solution from the oil and gas components that the water has forced out of the shale formations. The gases processed by the separators exit the separator unit from its own outlet that must be accurately measured for accounting and allocation purposes. Furthermore, flow of water, oil, and gases from the separator equipment must be measured to determine how productive the resources from the gas well head are. Over time, the well heads produce less and less gases and owners must determine when to decommission them.

Due to the often remote locations of these gas wells, there are not always local utilities available to power the equipment needed at the well site. Fuel gas to the equipment is needed to measure and monitor consumption.

Exhaust and vent gas from compressor packing cases is required to be monitored for environmental impact.

Some common gases and applications:
  • Compressor Packing Case Exhaust Flow Measurement
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring Flow Meters
  • Continuous Emissions Monitoring
  • Flow Meters for EPA and Other Emissions Regulations and Protocols
  • GHG Flow Meter
  • Sub meters for Natural Gas Measurement
  • Tank Vent / Flash Gas Station Monitoring
  • Natural Gas Totalizers
  • Methane Flow Measurement
  • Propane Flow Measurement
  • 40 CFR Part 60 Subpart OOOO Reporting
  • 40 CFR Part 98 Subpart W Reporting
  • CO2e Reporting
  • Flare and Combustor Gas Measurement
  • Separator Gas Measurement
  • Vapor Recovery Unit (VRU) Gas Measurement
  • Fuel & Combustion Gas Measurement
  • Other Pure and Mixed Gas Applications

Oil & Gas Applications

Fox Thermal Flow Meters for Midstream Production.
Midstream production input and output
Oil & Gas companies invest heavily in midstream impact studies in order to determine the amount of compression equipment, processing facilities, and natural gas
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storage facilities – along with a host of other midstream investments - that are needed in order to meet the demand for annual industry needs. The market anticipates that through the year 2035, each year will require the addition of an average of 2,000 miles of new natural gas transmission lines, more than 200,000 horsepower of compression, 24 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of gas storage capacity, and 1.3 Bcf per day of annual processing capacity additions. These investments are estimated to total about $200 billion dollars.

The construction and maintenance of these investments will require extensive manpower during construction, equipment for processes, and instrumentation for monitoring compressor air, fuel gas, separated gas, and VOC emissions. Thermal mass flow meters from Fox Thermal are ideally suited for these and other Oil & Gas Industry needs.

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Fox Thermal Flow Meters for Completions.
Green Completions
When a natural gas well site is drilled and developed, there is often an excess of natural gas which escapes into the air or is burned off (flared gas). Due to the
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tightening of regulatory restrictions on emissions, the Oil & Gas Industry is moving to the EPA recommended “Green Completion” technology that captures the natural gas at the well head instead of releasing or flaring it.

Green completion technology creates a closed loop system that both air emissions and flowback water can be recaptured and reused. Not only does this technology have environmental benefits, but it is also economically sound. Environmentally, the open pits with flowback water releasing VOCs into the atmosphere are replaced with closed storage and vapor recovery. Economically, the vapors are recovered and fed back into the system as a product for sale. Some sites use recovered gases to power equipment and machinery on-site as a further cost-saving benefit.

Thermal mass flow meters can be used to measure the flow of gases from the outlet of the separator tanks or to monitor fuel gas usage from various well-site equipment.

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Fox Thermal Flow Meters for Flares & Combustors.
Flares or Combustors
Flares and combustors provide the same function with a different user experience. With a flare, the flame of the flared gas is exposed and visible for miles and the
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sound of the burn off may be quite loud. If the flare is used near residential areas, this type of flaring is not preferable.

A combustor, on the other hand, serves the same purpose, but is performed in a near-closed shell. Where flares are made to be quite tall in order to raise the flame far above the ground (32 to 320ft above ground), combustors may be quite low to the ground (10 to 16 ft on average). Combustors are also designed to burn gases with high efficiency and very low emissions.

Both flares and combustors are in high demand by the Oil & Gas Industry in order to satisfy the requirements of the EPA’s 40 CFR Part 60 Subpart OOOO (also known as Quad O) and other regulations like Canada’s Directive 017.

Flares and combustors are used throughout the Oil & Gas Industry, whether on-shore or off-shore, in order to burn off excess gases or during upset conditions in the process. Monitoring the fuel to these flares at the inlet is part of meeting these regulatory requirements as gases flared must be reported. A flowmeter used in this application must be ready to read accurately at both very low flow rates and at high velocity for upset conditions. The thermal mass flowmeters from Fox Thermal are uniquely suited for these applications. Ask our Application Specialists for more information.

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Fox Thermal Flow Meters for Vapor Recovery.
Vapor Recovery Units (VRU’s)
Vapor Recovery Units (VRU’s) are designed to be used in conjunction with fossil fuel storage tanks. VRU’s collect and recover vapors from a closed venting system
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from the storage tanks that might otherwise be lost to the atmosphere. The recovered vapors are usually either environmentally hazardous or valuable to be recovered. Therefore, the vapors are either returned to the system or destroyed.

The use of VRU’s in the Oil & Gas Industry is becoming more common as a means of recovering valuable natural gas vapor as a usable and profitable product. VRU technology is improving to not only recover the valuable vapor, but also to reduce methane and VOC emissions. Thermal gas mass flow meters by Fox Thermal are ideal for these low velocity vapor recovery applications.

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Fox Thermal Flow Meters for Gas Allocation.
Gas Allocation
Oftentimes, there is a shared investment in Oil & Gas production or transportation. This requires consistent and accurate monitoring of the volume of product
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moved at each point in the system to allocate the net hydrocarbons between the entrants to the shared facilities. The flow meter readings will be used to calculate royalty payments to partners. Essentially, this turns the flow meter used in an allocation application into a cash register for the invested partners. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the flow meter is paramount. Fox Thermal flow meters have a proven track record for repeatable measurement, outstanding accuracy, and low maintenance costs.

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Fox Thermal Flow Meters for Environmental Monitoring.
Environmental & Emissions Monitoring
For many years, organizations like the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and international agreements (like the Kyoto Protocol), were designed to assess
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damage to the environment from pollutants and to affect legislation or agreements in order to combat further damage. These legislations and agreements need to be fed consistent reports of emissions and pollutants being produced by state actors or industries as a form of accountability. Violations are often met with fines or other penalties.

For the Oil & Gas Industry in the United States, there are many state and federal reporting requirements along with restrictions on certain emissions or pollutants. The equipment and facilities used in Oil & Gas activities are affected differently according to their type of function. Gas well head sites must move toward green completion technology and all oil and gas processes must monitor and report various emissions to meet EPA requirements.

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Flowmeters

FT3 Flow Meter for Flare Gas Applications.
Flare Gas Flow Meters
Flaring gases in the Oil & Gas industry or any number of biogas recovery systems has its own strict regulatory guidelines. Rugged, full-featured meters are needed to measure in these conditions. View Product Info >>
FT2A Flow Meter for Natural Gas Applications.
Natural Gas Flow Meters
Natural Gas is used as fuel for equipment across different industries. Fox Thermal natural gas flow meters offer the highest safety and accuracy standards. View Product Info >>
FT1 Flow Meter for Methane Applications.
Methane Flow Meters
Methane gas is only being monitored or recaptured by less than a third of the companies in the Oil & Gas sector, thus wasting a valuable fuel source or product. Start monitoring now! View Product Info >>
FT2A Flow Meter for Propane Applications.
Propane Flow Meters
Propane is a by-product of two other processes: natural gas processing and petroleum refining. Pilot lights to flares often use Propane or Butane. Get an accurate Fox Thermal meter. View Product Info >>
FT1 Flow Meter for Carbon Dioxide Applications.
Carbon Dioxide Flow Meters
Half of global CO2 emissions step from petroleum and gas sectors. Climate change regulations for GHG emissions like CO2 are extensive. Get the right monitoring device. View Product Info >>
FT3 Flow Meter for Vent or Flash Gas Applications.
Vent or Flash Gas Flow Meters
The ideal vent gas meter must measure flows ranging from 1-100 SFPS, without restricting flow, and accommodate for any gas composition changes. View Product Info >>
FT2A Flow Meter for Butane Applications.
Butane Flow Meters
Butane, along with other by-product gases, are measured after separation at well heads. You need the right measuring instrument for accurate measurement of the gas flow. View Product Info >>

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